Mallorca is an island in the Balearic archipelago bathed by the Mediterranean Sea. This sea is considered inland, since it exists thanks to the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the Iberian Peninsula from Africa. Unlike the Canary Islands, there are currently no active volcanoes in this archipelago, so the flora does not have to worry about it. Now he has other problems.
Drought is the most serious of all, because lack of rain coincides with summer, the hottest time of the year, where it can exceed 35 ºC and even touch 40 ºC in some places. This, added to the high relative humidity that exists due to the influence of the sea, makes the typical plants of Mallorca survive, like all those of the Balearic Islands.
wild olive tree (Olea europaea var sylvestris)
the wild olive tree It is one of the most commonly seen evergreen shrubs or trees on the island.. It lives both in the north, that is in the Sierra de Tramuntana, and in the south, where the temperatures are a little milder and it rains less. It is often planted in gardens, as it serves as an informal hedge, and moreover, its fruits, although smaller than those of the olive tree, are also edible.
Almond (prunus dulcis)
The almond tree is not native to the Balearic Islands, but to Asia, but it has been cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region for millennia. Today, as in the past, it is planted in orchards, but also in gardens. It reaches 10 meters in height and blooms in spring, producing white (most common) or pink flowers depending on the variety. The fruit is the almond, and can be eaten green or ripe.
Garnet Maple (Acer opalus var granatense)
The Granada maple is the only maple in the Balearic Islands. In the past it formed mixed groves, but as the climate warms it becomes harder to find. In Mallorca it lives only in the Sierra de Tramuntana, almost always in the shade, although it is not uncommon to find it growing a few meters from the sea, in full sun. It grows as a 4-5 meter bush or as a small tree up to 7 meters., and its leaves fall in winter. In the Balearic Islands, it is a protected species.
rock carnation (rupicolous dianthus subsp. bocchorian)
The rock carnation is a near-threatened species endemic to the Balearic archipelago, specifically Cap de Formentor, northeast of Mallorca, where it is protected. It grows on cliffs and rocky terrain, reaching a height of about 30 centimeters, and Produces lilac flowers from summer to fall.
bee flower (Ophrys apifera)
One of Mallorca’s many native orchids is the one known as the bee’s flower. It grows in the mountains, but also in the meadows. It is terrestrial, can reach 50 centimeters in height and develops green leaves. The flower is very curious, because it can be easily confused with bees. It flowers in spring, between April and May.
Ginesta (Genista cinerea)
The ginesta, broom or scab is a shrub that grows on the cliffs of the Sierra de Tramuntana, but it can also be found in some gardens. It is a very decorative plant, which reaches a height of 1 to 1.5 meters and is filled with yellow flowers in spring and summer. It has leaves, but they are small in size, so they lack ornamental value.
Fern (Dryopteris pallida)
At first we said that drought was a problem in Mallorca, but the lack of water should not be confused with the relative humidity of the air. And it’s that on this island it doesn’t rain much, but what we don’t miss is the humidity. Every morning the plants wake up wet. This allows many to grow well, as is the case with some ferns, such as Dryopteris pallida. This is endemic to the Sierra de Tramuntana, where it takes advantage of caves and holes in stone walls to grow. Its fronds -leaves- are green and up to 30 centimeters long.
Palm (Chamaerops humilis)
The heart of palm is the only native palm of Mallorca and all the Balearic Islands. It is found in the Sierra de Tramuntana and is also grown in many gardens on the island. It is also used in the decoration of streets and parks. It can reach 3-4 meters in height, and develops several stems -false trunks- with fan-shaped green leaves.
Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)
The Aleppo pine is the most common tree on Mallorca’s beaches, but it also grows in the mountains and is widely used as a shade tree in parks and streets. It is evergreen and can reach 25 meters in height. Its crown is very irregular, but if you wish, you can prune it in late winter to give it shape.
Carrots from Majorca (Daucus carota subsp. majority)
The Mallorcan carrot, or sea carrot as it is also called, it differs from the others mainly in the flowers, which open so much that they form a sort of rounded ball. In addition, it is found in the south of Mallorca and on the neighboring island of Cabrera, living near the sea. The leaves are green and a little succulent, and they bloom towards the end of spring.
I hope you liked the typical Mallorcan plants that we showed you.